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精读 你是什么垃圾?

更新时间:2019-10-04

《上海市生活垃圾管理条例》正式实施。该条例被称为“史上最严垃圾分类措施”,个人或单位未按规定分类投放垃圾的,都将面临处罚。

全球垃圾问题日益严峻,从包围城市的“垃圾山”到海上的“垃圾岛”,令人触目惊心。如何处理垃圾、对垃圾进行回收再利用,已成为摆在人类面前的一项迫切任务。

作为中国人口最多的城市之一,上海以如此大的决心和力度开展垃圾分类工作,对中国乃至世界都将产生影响。

 

CNA*对上海垃圾分类的报道
*CNA(Channel NewsAsia):an English language news channel based in Singapore 亚洲新闻台,位于新加坡以报道亚太新闻为主的电视频道

新闻:China’s War on Trash Is the World’s, Too

Trash is the talk of Shanghai. Starting Monday, the city requires residents and businesses to sort their waste and recyclables into separate bins.
The task is towering: Shanghai generates more than 9 million metric tons of garbage every year and -- like every other city, town and village in China -- it lacks even a rudimentary municipal recycling system.

be the talk of somewhere:释义: to be what people are discussing in a particularplace 成为(某地)人们谈论的话题

例子:Her behaviour is the talk of the neighbourhood/office. 她的行为举止成了邻里/办公室里的谈资。

tower:释义:to be very tall or large, usually in a way that makes people feel respect 高耸,矗立

例子:We turned the corner and there was the cathedral, towering in front of us. 我们转过拐角,便看见大教堂高高耸立在面前。

rudimentary:释义:Rudimentary methods, equipment, systems, or body parts are simple and not very well developed. 原始的;简陋的;未充分发展的

例子:Some unusual fish have rudimentary legs. 有些罕见的鱼类长有未发育完全的腿。

And China isn’t alone. As of 2018, humans were on track to generate waste at more than double the rate of population growth through 2050, with most of the growth coming in developing countries.
Whether or not those nations can establish formal recycling systems will be crucial to managing the world’s trash and minimizing its environmental consequences. China’s experience will be a first, critical test.

on track:释义:making progress and likely to succeed 有望成功;在正轨上

例子:They're on track to make record profits. 他们有望获得创纪录的利润。

In most of the world, profits rather than environmental concerns drive recycling, which is largely performed by self-employed waste pickers. It's a dirty job but highly efficient: In Nanjing, for example, a city of 9 million people located 200 miles from Shanghai, waste pickers recovered as much as 80% of the city's recyclables as recently as 2015.

self-employed:释义:not working for an employer but finding work for yourself or having your own business 自雇的;个体经营的

例子:a self-employed roofer 自雇的屋顶翻修人

recover:释义:to get back something lost or spent 失而复得,重新得到

例子:Police only recover a very small percentage of stolen goods. 警方只追回了被盗货物的一小部分。

Unfortunately, as countries become more affluent, waste picking as a profession is becoming less attractive. Better-paying job opportunities exist, while affluent homebuyers are naturally reluctant to have folks rummaging around in their garbage. Cities, too, are pushing out the small, unattractive recycling businesses that buy from waste pickers and sustain the informal industry.

affluent:释义:having a lot of money or owning a lot of things 富裕的;富足的

例子:affluent nations/neighbourhoods 富有国家/富人区

reluctant:释义:not willing to do something and therefore slow to do it 勉强的;不情愿的

例子:Many parents feel reluctant to talk openly with their children. 很多父母都不愿意和儿女们敞开心扉交谈。

rummage:释义:to search for something by moving things around carelessly and looking into, under, and behind them 翻找,翻寻,乱翻

例子:She rummaged in/through all the drawers, looking for a pen. 她把所有抽屉都翻了个遍,想找支笔。

Shanghai's new program is the most visible and extensive municipal recycling initiative ever attempted in China. Under the plan, citizens are required to sort their trash into four separate categories: food waste, recyclables, hazardous wastes and "residual wastes".

visible:释义:able or likely to attract public attention and be noticed 显眼的;引人注目的

例子:In a very short period of time, she has become a highly visible national leader. 在很短的一段时间内,她就变成了一位非常引人注目的国家领袖。

extensive:释义:covering a large area; having a great range 广阔的,大面积的;覆盖范围广的

例子:Her knowledge of music is extensive. 她的音乐知识非常广博。

hazardous:释义:dangerous 危险的

例子:a hazardous journey/occupation 危险的旅行/职业

residual:释义:remaining after most of something has gone 剩余的;残留的;残余的

例子:I still felt some residual bitterness ten years after my divorce. 离婚10年后,我仍然可以感到余痛。

 

Importantly, the system in Shanghai is uniquely public and punitive. Residents can only dispose of waste during certain hours, ensuring that neighbors will see who is and who isn’t sorting properly.
They must empty food waste into public bins without using bags, so everyone can also see what they’re throwing away. Fines of up to 200 yuan, roughly $30, await those who don’t sort. 

punitive:释义:intended as a punishment 惩罚性的

例子:punitive action 惩罚措施  The UN has imposed punitive sanctions on the invadingcountry. 联合国对侵略国实施了惩罚性制裁。

await:释义:to wait for or be waiting for something 等待;将降临在(…身上)

例子:  He's anxiously awaiting his test results. 他正焦急地等待着他的测试结果。

Far more will be required. Shanghai and other cities have yet to build the infrastructure needed to manage even properly sorted waste. They require trucks designed to carry sorted recyclables; large, industrial-scale recycling facilities; and environmentally sound incineration and composting sites for the "residual" and organic wastes. This will require years and billions in investment.

incineration    incinerate:释义:to burn something completely 把…烧成灰烬,焚毁

例子:to incinerate waste 焚烧废弃物

composting  compost

释义:名词:decaying plant material that is added to soil to improve its quality 混合肥料;堆肥

动词:To compost things such as unwanted bits of plants means to make them into compost 把…制成堆肥

 

Still, the fact that Shanghai has residents thinking and talking about waste on social media, in their compounds and at home is remarkable progress. It's also a lesson to other developing countries that the first step in creating a modern waste management system is to educate the public and foster a sense that recycling is a collective civic responsibility. If the world is going to clean up its trash heaps, Shanghai’s new program could well be the model.

civic:释义:of a town or city or the people who live in it 城镇的;城市的;市民的

例子:  She felt it was her civic duty to tell the police. 她觉得把这件事告诉警察是她作为市民应尽的义务。

heap:释义:an untidy pile or mass of things (凌乱的)一堆

例子:a heap of clothes/rubbish 一堆衣服/垃圾


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